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For example, the SHA-256 of the word BUTTERFLY (source) is 8c62ace4f9ef8ccd08ca6fb992a8524bb7dbdc0530654bd254c9da07a660949a (HASH). This seemingly random string of letters and numbers has three important properties:
Bitcoin mining involves three variables: the cube, the mining difficulty and a random number. Heres how it all comes together:
Imagine our cube consists of the term BUTTERFLY discussed earlier. In fact, the cube could contain a listing of recent, unverified transactions, but lets keep it simple. In order for the block to be solved, bitcoin utilizes a deceptively simple test: If the HASH result of the block starts with a certain number of zeros, the block is considered confirmed.
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For our example, lets say that we have a mining difficulty of simply two, ie, our HASH must start with two zeros. .
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The difficulty: BUTTERFLY will always return the same HASH, and it doesnt start with two zeros. So what we need is the third variable, a random number (called a NONCE). We carry this number, combine it with BUTTERFLY, and HASH again. If it doesnt start with two zeros, we change the number and try again, and since changing one little number changes the entire HASH outcome, there's absolutely no way to forecast the number well need to solve this! .
We repeat this process over and over until we find a number that, when combined with BUTTERFLY, provides us a HASH that starts with two zeros. That number is your solution to the block. Here are some attempts:
This arduous process of randomly trying to find a number that gives the solution is what creates bitcoin mining such a computationally expensive procedure, and as more miners join the network, the tougher it gets. As of November 2017, a regular home computer working alone, ie, not an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and not a part of a cloud mining network, could take 2.7 million years to mine one block. .
This has led to the growth of ASIC computers constructed specifically for mining and also to an increase in cloud mining.
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CPU mining. In the early days of bitcoin, mining difficulty was reduced and not a lot of miners were competing for cubes and rewards. This made it worthwhile to utilize your computers own central processing unit (CPU) to mine bitcoin. However, that strategy was soon replaced by GPU mining.
GPU mining. An graphics processing unit (GPU) is a powerful processor whose sole purpose is to help your own computers graphics card in rendering 3D graphics. GPUs are not built for executive decisions (such as CPUs) but to be very great labourers, hence GPUs are able to execute over 800 times more instructions in precisely the exact same amount of time as a CPU.
FPGA mining. Next came mining with field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These significantly outperformed GPUs and CPUs in the mining process as FPGAs are chips which can be programmed to execute certain instructions and only those instructions (instead of being repurposed for mining, like GPUs were).
ASIC mining. Similar to FPGAs, application-specific integrated circuits are chips designed for a particular purpose, in our situation mining bitcoin, and nothing else. ASICs for bitcoin were introduced in 2013 and, as of November 2017, they're the best processors available for mining bitcoin and they outperform FPGAs in electricity consumption. .
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Mining pools. To offset the difficulty of mining a block, miners started organising in pools or cloud mining networks. Whenever a miner in one of these pools solves a block, the reward is shared with everyone in the swimming pool in a ratio representative of just how much work you put into the pop over to this site pool (even though you personally never solved the puzzle). .
Cloud mining. Clouds provide prospective miners the ability to buy mining channels in a remote data centre location. There are many obvious advantages, the most obvious beingno electricity expenses, no extra heat and nothing to sell when you opt to hang your digital pickaxe.
Once miners get bitcoin, they are given a digital key to the bitcoin addresses. You can use this digital key to gain access and validate or approve transactions.
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Desktop wallets. Software like Bitcoin Core allows you to send and store bitcoin addresses and also connects to the network to track transactions.
Online wallets. Bitcoin keys are stored online by exchange platforms like Coinbase or Circle and can be accessed from anywhere.
Mobile wallets. Apps like Blockchain store and encrypt your bitcoin keys so that you can make payments using your mobile device.
Paper wallets. Some websites offer paper wallet solutions, generating a bit of paper with just two QR codes on it. One code is the public address at which you receive bitcoin and the other is your private address you can use for spending.